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Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is a way for authors to make their work more readily available and useable. Creative Commons has several free, easy-to-use copyright licenses which provide a simple, standardized way to give permission to share and use the author’s work.

CC licenses allow others to copy and reuse work without seeking permission, as the creator has already authorised this in advance. This removes the barrier that stands between a creative work and a prospective user of that work. It is often difficult, sometimes impossible, to locate the owner of a work to seek their permission. If approval to copy is given in advance, the process is simplified.

There are six main CC licenses. These are formed by combining the four license conditions (below), a creator will identify their conditions enabling the work to be used in various ways.

License Conditions under Creative Commons (CC)

Creative Commons (CC) o­ffer four license conditions. Authors and creators choose a set of conditions they wish to apply to their work:

- Attribution: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work – and derivative works based upon it – but only if they give credit the way you request.

- Share Alike: You allow others to distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs your work.

- Noncommercial: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your work – and derivative works based upon it – but for noncommercial purposes only.

- No Derivative Works: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform only verbatim copies of your work, not derivative works based upon it.

Research Focus and Creative Commons


Research Focus publishes all its articles under the Creative Commons license, specifically Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Under this license, the Research Focus Journal is free to:


- Share – copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format


- Adapt – remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.


The author cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the Journal follow the license terms.


Under this license’s terms, the Journal must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made.


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Open Access Journal
ISSN 2668-4675
Publishing Agreement

By submitting your manuscript, you agree to the Publishing Agreement.

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